There are several important vineyard sites that form the base of the Gigondas that comes to the USA, including Gour de Chaul�, Les Blaches, and Les Bousquets. The average age of the Grenache vines planted within these plots is 55 years (as of 2011). Production levels generally average 30 to 32 hectoliters per hectare. The grapes are harvested manually and are never destemmed. There is a three week cuvaison. A small amount of press juice is added back to the cuvee. Malolactic fermentation takes place in cuve and, after the malolactic fermentation is complete, the wine is racked into large oak "foudres" where it stays for approximately 18 months. The wine is racked no more than three times before it is bottled - unfined and unfiltered - 30 to 36 months after harvest. New oak is not used at this domaine. The resulting wine is sturdy, braced with sweet, dusty tannins, and is intensely aromatic with notes of crushed white pepper, oriental spices and game.